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介紹一封明義士寫給金璋的書信

发布日期:2018-12-28 原文刊于:《甲骨文与殷商史》新七辑

介紹一封明義士寫給金璋的書信

(中史研究所)

【關鍵詞】明義士;金璋;書信

【摘要】劍橋大學圖書館手稿室所藏的金璋檔案資料中,有一封明義士寫給金璋的書信,信中談及他於19274月被迫離開安陽,19287月重回安陽後發現家中收藏的文物和書籍已被士兵損壞殆盡的情況,以及他正在研究甲骨文中的“天”和“帝”這兩個字,希望金璋能為他寄來相關資料的事情。這封書信可以作為明義士研究的一項補充資料。

201156月,筆者有幸在劍橋大學圖書館手稿室整理了該館珍藏的金璋檔案資料。在這些檔案資料中,筆者找到了一封明義士寫給金璋的書信。這封書信是明義士在19332月寫的,采用的是印有“山東濟南齊魯大學CEELOO UNIVERSITY, TSINAN, CHINA”字樣的信封和印有“CEELOO UNIVERSITY TSINAN, CHINA, CHINESE RESEARCH INSTITUTE濟南私立齊魯大學國學研究所”字樣的信紙。信封保存相對完好,只是右上角的郵票被撕掉了。信封裏面共有三張信紙,正反兩面都有文字。第一張信紙和第二張信紙正反兩面的頁眉中間位置標有1234的字樣,應為頁碼順序。第一張信紙上標有日期“Febr13/33”,即寫於1933213日。第三張信紙似為裁過的,只有半頁紙大小,頁眉上沒有寫頁碼,只標有日期“1933 Febr15”,即寫於1933215日。據此可知,明義士在1933213日寫了一封信,215日又補充了一些內容,一起寄給了金璋。第四頁的最後一句話並不完整,可知這封書信內容有所缺失。根據這最後一句內容推斷,缺失的部分應是明義士向金璋介紹他192812月前往印度的各種經曆。

這封書信內容十分重要,213日的信中談及明義士於19274月被迫離開安陽,19287月重回安陽後,發現家中收藏的文物和書籍已經被士兵損壞殆盡。215日的信中談及他正在研究甲骨上的“天”和“帝”這兩個字,希望金璋能為他抄寫《金》621上的“大邑商”和其他內容,並希望能夠通過支付必要的費用獲得金璋所藏甲骨和大英博物院所藏甲骨的照片。他也非常希望金璋所藏甲骨、大英博物院所藏甲骨和蘇格蘭皇家博物院所藏甲骨能夠最終得以出版。筆者對這封書信進行了整理錄入,並做了中文譯本。在此公布,以享學界。

【英文】

【第一、二張信紙】

 

TSINAN  Febr 15/33

Dear Mr. Hopkins,

I presume this note will be to you like a voice from the dead. I have not written for so long a time that it seemed hardly right to do so until I had something worth while to write about.

After the war I returned to my mission station in Changtefu, Honan, and with a very much depleted staff carried on. Little time was left for "oracle bones", but I kept in touch with all, or at least most of the things that were found in the neighborhood of the "Waste of Yin". I had hard enough work to keep pace with the various "objects" which increased my knowledge of the Shang dynasty, without putting in extra work on bone decipherment. I secured a lot of broken fragments of many kinds of pots and implements (most things are broken) and a find of hard bones like yours that came from under the village site of Hsiao Tun. Then in April 1927 we had all to leave Honan. Our mission has been in Honan since 1889, and many billows of war have gone over us. The people reckon us as a part of themselves; even the bandits have left us alone. So we left most of our things in Honan expecting to be back again after a prolonged summer holiday in Tientsin and Peitaiho. I had not had an opportunity to go over my first collection published in 1917. Oracle Records From The Waste of Yin. 2367 fragments. They were all packed up in a case unopened since before the war. So I took these along and my most recent set found 1924 mentioned above which was also packed up——all my other bone fragments. The many thousands of fragments unsorted and the culls mentioned in the introduction of my "Oracle Records" and all the odd gatherings since the war together with all the pottery and other objects were left in their cases in my home, or open on the shelters in our cellar.

Well to make a long story short. The soldiers, the regular army of the country occupied our hospitals, schools, and houses. They smashed almost everything they could lay their hands on, tore up the books and left little or nothing worth anything. The bones they tore out of their bundle in the cases (for I had wrapped them up and sealed them from the air to preserve them) and trampled them to powder. When, Mr. Griffith (my colleague since dead) and I returned in 1928 July, there was a pile of crushed bone and dirt on the floor where the cases had been a foot deep and almost 10 feet in diameter. The soldiers were then in occupation of the buildings and we only got an opportunity to enter the compound and see the buildings during the internal after one troop moved out and before the next troop moved in the next day. I had some of the dirt and bones shoveled into a couple of kuang and sifted in an ash sifter but I did not yield 30 fragments of any interest whatever. The pottery was all smashed. I was later able to find in debris some fragments of interesting shapes and repair them and to recover some stone implements, which were not so easily destroyed. All Chinese books either disappeared or were mutilated. On the wall in my study I noted the timetable of the officers cadet corps, which had occupied it. It certainly seemed that the men who did the destruction knew what they were about for all maps and illustrations were torn out of the books that were left and the books broke where the corners were not completely torn off. It must have taken weeks to do it and it is no easy thing to wrench the back off a well-bound book.

Needless to say, the reprints from R.A.S. journal of your articles were lost. I believe I recovered one of them. If I lay my hands on it, I shall send it to you as a sample of what happened to the rest.

In Dec1928, we went on furlough and I spent 3months in India visiting the Buddha country and central India and from there (以下內容缺失)

 

【第三張信紙】

TSINAN  Febr 15/1933

Dear Mr. Hopkins,

I have been making a study of the two charactersandon the bones and would be greatly obliged if you could copy especially the inscription on your H621and any others on the subject. I should be very glad indeed to get any photographs or reproductions of your bones or the British Museum ones, and to pay whatever is necessary for the photographs. Indeed it will be a real loss to Sinology if your bones are not published into either photographs, rubbings or drawings. The British Museum ones ought to be done also, and Royal Scottish Museum. However can this be accomplished, I should be glad to undertake the task were I near enough to do it. But some of the material is invaluable, others I view as doubtful. But that does not make much differencewhen all is published, folks can select the material they wish for study.

I do hope this will be possible. If your bones are ever going into other private hands, I should like to make a bid for them. If they are to be public, then they will be available.

J. M. Menzies

【中譯】

【第一、二張信紙】

 

濟南  1933213

親愛的金璋先生:

我猜這封信對您來說就如同死人那裏發來的聲音。我已經好久沒有給您寫信了,以至於我覺得除非有值得相告的事情,否則給您寫信都是不合適的。

戰爭之後,我回到河南彰德府的傳教站,在人手不足的情況下繼續傳教。很少有時間研究“甲骨”,但我一直關注“殷墟”附近地區發現的全部、或者至少大部份古物。我做了大量紮實的工作,搜集那些豐富了我對商代認識的各種“物品”,但在甲骨文字釋讀上沒有投入額外的工作。我搜集了很多各種陶器和器具(大多已破碎)的殘片,也獲得了一批小屯村挖出的字骨,這批字骨跟您的藏品相似。19274月,我們都被迫離開河南。我們的傳教士從1889年開始就在河南傳教,經曆了各種戰火硝煙。本地人已經把我們當成了自己人,土匪都不來騷擾我們。因此,我們把大部分東西都留在了河南,期待在天津和北戴河度過漫長的暑假之後再回到這裏。我有機會出版第一本甲骨著錄書是在1917年,題為Oracle Records From The Waste of Yin(《殷虛卜辭》),共著錄2367片甲骨。這些甲骨都包好放在箱子裏,戰爭爆發前都未曾打開過。因此,我就把這些甲骨,以及上文提到的1924年最新獲得的一批甲骨——這批甲骨是包裝好的,也是我“所有其他的甲骨”——隨身帶走了。《殷虛卜辭·序言》中提到的幾千片沒有整理著錄的碎骨和次品,以及我回到彰德後所購買的其他古怪的藏品,以及所有陶器和其他東西,我都把它們留在了家裏,或者裝在箱子裏,或者放在地下室的書架上。

還是長話短說吧。士兵們,這些國家正規軍,占領了我們的醫院、學校和房舍。他們幾乎摧毀了一切可以觸到的東西,撕毀了書籍,沒有留下任何有價值的東西。他們把甲骨從箱子裏拽出,一包一包地拆散(我把它們都包好了,密封起來防止氧化),再把它們踩成粉末。19287月我和同事Griffith先生(現已去世)回到這裏,發現地上滿是殘碎的甲骨和粉末,箱子堆了有一英尺厚,幾乎十英尺寬。這時士兵還占領著這棟房子,我們只能在一支軍隊撤離、第二天另一支軍隊入駐的間隙,進到院子裏看看。我把碎成粉末的甲骨裝到幾個筐裏,再倒進篩子裏篩撿,最後連30片有用的甲骨都沒有篩出來。陶器全都摔得粉碎。後來我從廢墟中揀了一些形狀有趣的碎片,把它們拼起來,複原了一些不易被摧毀的石器。所有中文書籍,不是找不見了,就是被撕爛了。在書房的牆壁上,我發現了占領這棟房子的少年團軍官的日程表。看起來這些家夥肯定知道自己在找什麼,在留下的書籍裏,所有的地圖和插圖都被撕掉了,書籍破損的地方正是撕書時殘留的那些書角。這必定耗費了他們好幾周的時間,從裝訂精良的書上拆下書脊並非一件容易的事情。

自不必說,您在亞洲文會雜志上發表的論文抽印本也都找不到了。我肯定是找到了其中一份。我如果哪天看到了,就給您寄去,讓您看看其他書籍都是怎麼被毀的。

192812月,我們開始休假。我在印度停留了三個月,走訪了這個佛教國家和印度中部,從那裏~~~(以下內容缺失)

 

【第三張信紙】

1933215

最近我在研究甲骨上的這兩個字,如果您能為我抄寫您的第621片甲骨上的”和其他內容,我將非常感激。如果有幸可以獲得您或大英博物院所藏甲骨的照片或複本,我將非常高興,也願意支付任何必要的費用。如果您收藏的甲骨不能全部以照片、拓片或摹本的形式得到出版,這對漢學界將是巨大的損失。大英博物院所藏甲骨也應該得到出版,蘇格蘭皇家博物院所藏甲骨也應如此。倘若我能離得近一些,無論這些工作將如何完成,我都非常樂意去做。其中一些材料是非常珍貴的,也有一些我懷疑是偽刻。但這並不影響什麼,只要所有藏品都能得以出版,學者自會挑選材料加以研究。

我真心希望這些甲骨最終能夠出版。如果您的藏品想要轉給其他私人藏家,我非常樂意競爭一下。如果它們要轉給公共收藏機構,我們也就有機會接觸它們了。


 

【照片】

 

 (原文载于《甲骨文与殷商史》新七辑)